• Extensive study of cognitive load shows that while individuals like to have choices, if there are too many options, then they become overwhelmed. The 5-star ballot has six distinct ratings, landing right in the sweet spot of what can expect most voters to need and want for expressive voting.
  • Polling using large ranges has demonstrated that most people use the only ends and middle of the range. For example, if the ballot allowed voters to score candidates from 0 up to 99, most voters would only use the scores 0, 1, 49, 50, 98, and 99. With a 5 star ballot, this results in ideal expressive voter behavior.
  • Statistical modeling has been conducted with variations of STAR Voting using a variety of ranges. Overall accuracy improved with up to about 5 stars but the analysis saw diminishing returns above that.